Heretic Legal Term

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The first known use of the term in a legal context occurred in 380 AD by the Edict of Thessalonica of Theodosius I,[15] which made Christianity the state church of the Roman Empire. Prior to the issuance of this edict, the Church had no state-sponsored support for any particular legal mechanism to counter what it perceived as a «heresy.» Thanks to this edict, the authority of the state and that of the Church overlapped somewhat. One of the results of this blurring of church and state has been the division of executive powers from the state with ecclesiastical authorities. This strengthening of Church authority gave Church leaders the power to impose the death penalty on those whom the Church considered heretics. The heretical name is most often used in a religious context to refer to someone whose actions or beliefs violate the laws, rules, or beliefs of a particular religion. However, heretic can also be used in a non-religious way to refer to «someone whose ideas violate the norm.» Let`s say your usual hangout is a honky-tonk cowboy and most of your friends play in country bands. You might be considered a heretic if you advertise that your favorite music is actually opera. Perhaps because of the many modern negative connotations associated with the term heretical, such as the Spanish Inquisition, the term is used less frequently today. The theme of Christian heresy raises broader questions about who has a monopoly on spiritual truth, as Jorge Luis Borges explores in the short story «The Theologians» in the compilation of labyrinths.

[32] The term is used in particular in reference to Christianity, Judaism and Islam. [3] In some Christian, Muslim and Jewish historical cultures, among others, the defense of heretical ideas ranging from excommunication to the death penalty has been criticized (and in some cases still is). The common law even had a Latin name for the legal decree for the burning of a heretic: a writ de heretico comburendo, as well as a law of the same name (2 Henry IV, chapter 15). In the Catholic Church, persistent and deliberate manifest heresy is cut off from the Church as spiritual, even before excommunication occurs. The Codex Justinian (1,5,12) defines «anyone who is not devoted to the Catholic Church and to our holy Orthodox faith» as a heretic. [36] The Church had always dealt harshly with the currents of Christianity that it considered heretical, but before the 11th century these were concentrated on individual preachers or small local sects such as Arianism, Pelagianism, Donatism, Marcionism, and Montanism. The westward spread of the almost Manichean sect of the Paulicians gave rise to the famous heresies of Western Europe from the 11th and 12th centuries. The first was that of the Bogomils in present-day Bulgaria, a kind of sanctuary between Eastern and Western Christianity. In the 11th century, more organized groups such as the Patarini, Dulcionians, Waldensians and Cathars began to appear in cities in northern Italy, southern France and Flanders. Revisionist paleontologist Robert T.

Bakker, himself a scientific endoketist, published his findings under the title The Dinosaur Heresies, and treated the dominant view of dinosaurs as dogma:[66] A belief or doctrine considered unacceptable by a religious group. (See heretics.) In some modern nations and regions, heresy remains a crime punishable by death. One example is the fatwa issued by the Iranian government in 1989, which offers a substantial bounty to anyone who succeeds in assassinating the writer Salman Rushdie, whose writings have been declared heretical. Furthermore, the Baháʼí Faith in Iran is considered an Islamic heresy with systematic persecution of Baháʼís. [60] If your girlfriend is interested in Hinduism with its many gods and rituals, her Catholic mother may fear that her daughter is a heretic or someone whose religious beliefs are contrary to the core beliefs of her church. The origin, spread and persistence of heresy are due to various causes and are influenced by many external circumstances. The abolition of faith, which has been permeated and promoted by God himself, is possible thanks to the human element in him, namely man`s free will. The will freely determines the act of faith, because its moral dispositions lead it to obey God, while the indecision of the reasons for credibility allows it to refuse its consent and leaves room for doubt and even denial. The indecision of the reasons for credibility can stem from three causes: the darkness of divine witness (inevidentia attestantis); the obscurity of the content of Revelation; The contrast between the obligations that faith imposes on us and the evil inclinations of our corrupt nature. To find out how a person`s free will is led to withdraw from the once known belief, the best way is to observe historical cases. Pius X, who studies the causes of modernity, says: «The immediate cause is undoubtedly an error of the mind.

The most distant causes are two: curiosity and pride. Curiosity, if not judiciously contained, is enough in itself to explain all errors. But much more effective in obscuring the mind and leading it to error is pride, which is in him, so to speak, in modernist doctrines. Out of pride, modernists overestimate themselves. We are not like other men. They reject any submission to authority. They present themselves as reformers. When we turn to the intellectual for moral reasons, the first and most powerful is ignorance.

They praise modern philosophy. to completely ignore the philosophy of the schools, thus depriving themselves of the means to eliminate the confusion of their ideas and to encounter sophistry. Their system, marked by so many errors, has its origin in the marriage of false philosophy with faith» (Encyclopedia. «Pascendi,» September 8, 1907). For a few years after the Reformation, Protestant churches were also known to execute those they considered heretics; For example, Michael Servetus was declared a heretic by the Reformed Church and the Catholic Church because he rejected the Christian doctrine of the Holy Trinity. [25] The last known heretic executed by judgment of the Catholic Church was the Spanish schoolmaster Cayetano Ripoll in 1826. The number of people executed as heretics under the authority of the various «ecclesiastical authorities»[note 1] is not known. [Note 2] Church legislation on heresy and heretics is often accused of cruelty and intolerance. It is intolerant: in reality, its raison d`être is the intolerance of doctrines that undermine the faith. But such intolerance is essential for everything that is, moves or lives, because tolerance to the destructive elements of the organism is equivalent to suicide. Heretical sects are subject to the same law: they live or die to the extent that they apply or neglect it.

The charge of cruelty is also easy to fulfill. All repressive measures cause suffering or inconvenience of one kind or another: it is in their nature. But they are not cruel. The father who chastises his guilty son is just and can be tender. Cruelty only comes into play when the sentence exceeds the requirements of the case. The opponents say: Exactly; the austerity of the Inquisition has wounded all human feelings. We answer: they hurt the feelings of later times, when the purity of faith receives less attention; But they did not resist the sentiments of their time, when heresy was considered worse than treason. As proof, it suffices to note that the inquisitors spoke only of the guilt of the accused and then delivered him to the secular power to be treated according to the laws promulgated by emperors and kings.

The medieval people found no flaws in the system, in fact the heretics had been burned by the population centuries before the Inquisition became a regular institution. And whenever the heretics prevailed, they were never slow to apply the same laws: the Huguenots in France, the Hussites in Bohemia, the Calvinists in Geneva, the Elizabethan statesmen and the Puritans in England.